Io Volcanoes Go Hyperactive

first_imgThe volcanoes on Jupiter’s moon are bursting out at record rates, and nobody knows why.  Is it the new normal?A press release from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory says it was a “hellacious two weeks” last summer on the innermost large moon of Jupiter, Io (about the size of Earth’s moon).  This most volcanic body in the solar system strutted its stuff with three massive, super-hot outbursts in August 2013:“These new events are in a relatively rare class of eruptions on Io because of their size and astonishingly high thermal emission,” [Ashley] Davies said. “The amount of energy being emitted by these eruptions implies lava fountains gushing out of fissures at a very large volume per second, forming lava flows that quickly spread over the surface of Io.“All three events, including the largest, most powerful eruption of the trio on Aug. 29, 2013, were likely characterized by “curtains of fire” as lava blasted out of fissures perhaps several miles long.Super-eruptions may not be all that rare.  NASA’s Astrobiology Magazine quotes a scientist who said, “We typically expect one huge outburst every one or two years, and they’re usually not this bright.”  This new discoveries, based on careful analysis of photos from the Keck II telescope, are leading him to think this may be the new normal.  “Here we had three extremely bright outbursts, which suggest that if we looked more frequently we might see many more of them on Io.”Huge outbursts were measured by the Galileo spacecraft (in orbit 1995-2003), the New Horizons spacecraft (2007) and earth-bound telescopes, including record bursts in 2001 (10/04/01), March 8, 2003, and 2007 (4/23/07, 12/03/07) and 2010.  No energy source was mentioned in these new articles, particularly one that could persist for billions of years.Back in September 27, 2002, in Science Magazine, planetary scientist Alfred McEwen said this:If Io’s typical heat flow over geologic time is just 10% of today’s value, then we can expect 1012 km3 of silicate melt over the last 4000 million years—40 times the volume of Io. There should thus have been sufficient heat to melt 10% of Io’s volume 400 times. After just four episodes of such partial melting, Io should have formed a low-density crust ∼50 km thick. High-temperature, dense mafic or ultramafic lavas could only rise through the thick low-density crust under extraordinary circumstances.His way out was to propose a magma ocean under the crust; that idea has gained traction in 2011 from analysis of Galileo data (NASA, see 5/14/11).  Still, the lavas would have erupted hundreds of times over in billions of years, according to what McEwen just said.  Material is also continuously lost to a torus around Jupiter, so after a few times through the recycler, one would expect the material to be depleted in the lightest elements.  Brian Thomas at ICR responded in 2011 that the magma ocean theory is insufficient to account for Io’s heat output.  The problem stems entirely from secular astronomers’ refusal to consider a younger solar system, one that is far less than 4.5 billion years old.In 2000-2002, the enormous output of this moon already exceeded what the scientists could account for by tidal flexing (8/16/00), 9/27/02).  Since then, planetary scientists tried to rig downward the heat output measurements, while sticking to the public story, as found on Wikipedia, that tidal flexing is sufficient to account for the energy output (occasionally the truth leaks out; see “Too hot to handle,” 6/12/12, also admission in 7/29/11).  None of the latest theories, though, have addressed the problem of erupting 40 times Io’s entire mass through the volcanoes, or the problem of a growing crust stifling further eruptions.  Tidal flexing appears to be a convenient, but insufficient, theory.  Just last year, a study showed that locations of Io’s eruptions based on tidal flexing models do not match predictions (see “Bimbo eruptions in the solar system,” 4/06/13).  Another admitted that Io’s heat is several times higher than tidal flexing models can explain (2/02/13).The 2013 outbursts, if the new normal, may revise upward the total heat output, straining further the notion that tidal flexing is sufficient.  Since planetary scientists typically shun the idea that we happen to be living in special circumstances (2/02/13), the latest news from Keck may have planetary scientists singing a new verse of Io, Io, It’s Off to Work We Go (5/04/04).Well, we rig rig rigWell, we rig in our minds the whole day throughRig rig rig, that is what we like to doAnd it ain’t no trick to get sick quickIf you rig rig rig, with a paradigm shtickRig rig rig, the whole day throughGot to rig rig rig, it’s what we like to do in our mind, in our mindWith 4 billion years assigned;We got to rig rig rig, from the morning till the nightRig rig rig up everything in sightWe got to rig rig rig, in our mind, in our mindRig scenarios by the scoreA thousand stories, sometimes moreBut we don’t know what we are riggin’ for, yeahIo, Io,It’s off to work we goWe keep on sweating all day longIo,Io, Io,Got to make your troubles goWell, we keep on sweating all day longIo!(Visited 273 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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UN gives thanks for Madiba’s ‘inheritance of hope’

first_img20 December 2012A special meeting of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) was convened in New York on Friday, to give Member States an opportunity to pay tribute to former president Nelson Mandela, who passed away on 5 December in South Africa aged 95.More than 50 speakers recalled the late statesman’s journey from prisoner to president to Nobel Peace prize winner.Passionate revolutionary, apostle of peace, champion of human rights, nation builder and beacon of freedom were among the terms of endearment bestowed on former South African President Nelson Mandela during the meeting.Touching upon his life’s numerous milestones, delegates chronicled the 27 years he spent in prison for challenging an apartheid government, his emergence into freedom in 1990, his Nobel Peace Prize, his leadership in halting racial segregation and his rise to become the first democratically elected president of South Africa.Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, describing the services held for Mandela in South Africa last week, which had occurred under heavy rain, told delegates that the weather was almost a reminder that without rain there could be no rainbow. It was now the world’s duty to follow his lead and to follow his rainbow for the global good.The UN chief said Mandela showed that tyranny and oppression never have the last word.“That is the heritage of hope he bestowed on each and every one of us. That is our inheritance.“Now it is our duty to build the better world that he showed is within our grasp. Today and every day, let us be inspired by his passion, his compassion, and his undying conviction in the human spirit and the global good.”Lasting peaceThe world must also follow in his footsteps, General Assembly President John Ashesaid (Antigua and Barbuda) said. “Let us remember that we too must work together to reduce hunger and injustice to build lasting peace and sustainable development, to stop genocide and hunger.”Kingsley Mamabolo, the Permanent Representative of South Africa, thanked all speakers for their kindness in paying tribute to his country’s great hero. Archbishop Desmond Tutu in a video message offered appreciation for the tribute and to Madiba for his enormous contributions to all of humanity.Some delegates shared personal moments they had had with Mandela. David Dinkins, New York City’s first African-American Mayor, remembering Mandela’s visit to Gracie Mansion, described a man who was consistent, whether playing with Dinkins’ granddaughter or facing the media.Historic memoriesHistoric memories were also shared. Some delegates proudly recalled their countries’ leaders hosting visits by Mandela after his release from prison. Among them, India’s speaker recalled that during his visit, Mandela had received the Bharat Ratna, his country’s highest civilian honour.More broadly, some speakers spoke of how Mandela had deeply inspired their communities, nations and regions. Representatives of Timor-Leste and of Rwanda told the Assembly how his ideals had guided their respective countries forward on the path of reconciliation.Some delegates, including Sri Lanka’s, recalled their countries’ boycott of South Africa’s apartheid regime. Others reported days of national mourning observed by their citizens after the former President’s death.Nigeria’s speaker called him an icon while Mozambique’s representative called him a symbol of leadership and courage. A United States delegate called him a giant on the world stage. Brazil’s speaker said he was the greatest statesman of the 20 century. ‘The apartheid within’“Let us join him in his humanity and try to rid ourselves from the apartheid within ourselves,” proclaimed Syria’s speaker, on behalf of the Group of Asia-Pacific States, receiving, in response, a spontaneous round of applause.The Permanent Observer for the State of Palestine said Mandela would forever be an icon of freedom and the most vivid example in modern times of the power of forgiveness and reconciliation after brutal oppression. “President Mandela remains an embodiment of the conscience of the world,” he said.While remembering Mandela’s triumphs, many speakers underlined the obligation all people should have in order to carry on his ideals and vision in trying to build a better and more just world.Fiji’s speaker, on behalf of the “Group of 77” developing countries and China, said the United Nations should do everything possible to pursue the goals that Mandela had struggled so long and hard to achieve. “Whatever our handicaps, we should aspire to reach the higher ground to which he pointed us,” he said. ‘Get back to work’Pointing out that the world would be gathering next year to shape a post-2015 development agenda, he underscored Madiba’s exhortation that overcoming poverty was not a task of charity, but one of justice.While that task could seem enormous, he cited Madiba, who once said, “It always seems impossible, until it’s done.”While Mandela was exceptional, he was also modest, said Switzerland’s representative. Guessing at his reaction to the words just heard during the special meeting, he said Mandela probably would have said, “I am very touched by your words. Please leave the room now and get to work.” SAinfo reporter and United Nationslast_img read more

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Agent Viru

first_imgAnupam MukerjiTuesday, March 1An optional practice day for the team. But the coach showed select players some highlights from the match against England. Bhajji was shown his dropped catch, followed by how he growled at others for their misfields. Piyush Chawla (PC) was shown how he got tonked for two sixes and then reacted to a wicket like he had taken a hat-trick. And Munaf was shown his performance with the bat again and again till it could pierce through his head. “All you had to do was run, you idiot,” Kirsten Kaku was overheard screaming. “But, it’s good to have him in the side,” Agent Viru told me later. “Now I am not the only bull head in the team.” Kaku has sought Sunil Gavaskar’s help to teach Munaf how to put the bat behind the crease. An obvious choice as teacher, given his fascination with “sliding the bat in”, as we have painfully heard a million times in his long career as commentator. But Munaf is quietly confident he will make Gavaskar forget it himself. Amazingly, most of India is wishing the same.Wednesday, March 2PCB Chief Ijaz Butt held a press conference after Pakistan’s win against Sri Lanka. Other than the victory, he spoke of how it was now clear that the Sydney Test Match, famous for Kamran Akmal’s 123 missed chances, wasn’t fixed at all. “It’s clear now that Kamran really can’t keep wickets. We should stop accusing him of dropping catches intentionally,” Butt said. Kamran, in turn, has turned to PC for help with a text that reads, “Please teach me how not to look stupid while doing stupid things on the field.” Viru tells me that PC has promised to teach Kamran as soon as he finishes teaching S. Sreesanth.advertisementThursday, March 3 Suresh Raina is getting desperate to break into the playing eleven. While the rest of the team trained at the Chinnaswamy Stadium, Raina headed to a leading cosmetic surgeon to explore ways of getting dimples on his cheeks. “Look like PC and you can get in,” Viru had suggested to Raina a few days earlier. All for a good cause, after all, Raina can definitely bat better and couldn’t bowl any worse. Raina even called up Praveen Kumar (PK) to confirm the pecking order. Raina was under the impression that his name came after PK’s in the Uttar Pradesh quota. “Even I know this much English yaar,” PK replied. “P comes before S.” And C is closer to D,” Viru added with a wry smile as he narrated the story to me.Friday, March 4I met Agent Viru at his house in Delhi where he had returned to get his rib injury scanned. He updated me on a few mysterious incidents. Apparently, Ashish Nehra’s after shave bottle was found filled with a warm fluid of similar colour but very dissimilar odour. Unfortunately for Nehra, he discovered it much after he had liberally applied it all over his face. Bhajji’s shoes were found filled with sand. And R. Ashwin, another bowler vying for a spot, couldn’t sleep the whole night as he felt his room was haunted. “A pattern seems to emerge if you combine these two incidents with how Sreesanth bowled a beamer at Yuvi and then smashed the bowling coach’s knees,” Agent Viru explained the conspiracy theory. When I asked about his rib injury, he explained, “Ribs were always fine, yaar. I was tired of the bisibele bhath in Bangalore. I had to have my mom’s aloo parathas. Now, I am all set for the next match.”The writer was formerly known as the Fake IPL Player. He will observe the 2011 World Cup through Agent Viru’s eyes.last_img read more

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Apple iPhone 5: What makes it so unique?

first_imgThe wait is almost over as Apple is widely expected to announce a new smartphone, iPhone 5, at an event in San Francisco today. The event is being held in San Francisco at Yerba Buena Center for the Arts Theater, where Apple has held many product launches.Apple Inc also plans to update its phone software this fall and will ditch Google Inc’s mapping service for its own, as a rivalry between the two companies intensifies.The new model is expected to work with 4G cellular networks. The new model will likely go on sale in a week or two.It is also expected to have a taller screen and the ability to access the latest wireless data networks in the US. Analysts expect it to set sales records.Other unconfirmed reports say Apple will reveal a smaller version of the iPad, taking on competitors like Amazon.com Inc.’s Kindle Fire, which have nibbled on the edges of the iPad’s dominance in the tablet category.According to the report on ibtimes.com, French blog nowhereelse.fr, known for publishing alleged iPhone 5 leaks, has just posted what is believed to be the new mini dock connector alongside the current-generation dock connector. The images posted on Saturday indicate the purported 9-inch format is nearly the same size as the Micro USB plug, although there have been rumours it would be thinner and longer.The report says that Apple’ s new plug will feature a refreshed layout in which eight pins are exposed on either side of a metal shell. This shell serves as a ninth contact, and users will no longer have to ensure the connector is right side up when inserting it into a device, it added.The Wall Street Journal recently reported the iPhone 5 will feature 4G LTE networks in the US, Europe, and Asia. However, this functionality may not be available via all carriers immediately at launch.Besides, it is also speculated that iPhone 5 will come equipped with 4G LTE, making it comparable with rival Samsung’s equivalent offering. The South Korea manufacturer released its flagship Galaxy S3 with the fourth-generation speedy Internet feature capability in May.Sales of Apple’s iPhones are still strong, though the company lost the lead in smartphones to Samsung this year. Samsung Electronics Co benefited from having its Galaxy S III out in the US in June, while Apple was still selling an iPhone model released last October.iPhone 5 may face tough competition in smartphone arenaAhead of the hotly-anticipated debut of a next-generation iPhone 5 by Apple, Google and Microsoft have introduced new champions in the competitive smartphone arena.Microsoft and Nokia have joined to boost their smartphone arsenal with two new Lumia handsets, Nokia Lumia 820 and 920, powered by Windows 8 software.It may be noted that several gadgets like Amazon, Nokia and Motorola have made announcements lately as all the devices are trying to generate interest in their products before Apple’s expected announcement of the new iPhone.Analysts are reportedly convinced that demand for the new iPhone is likely to be hot, as many people in the market for handsets have put off purchases to wait for the latest offering from Apple.Once the leader in mobile phones, Nokia has been losing market share as consumers move to smartphones powered by Apple’s iOS or Google’s Android operating system.What to do with your old iPhone?Here are a few things to do with yours to keep it from meeting that fate once you buy the iPhone 5.1. Give it to your kids so they stop taking yours…Every parent, aunt and uncle knows that no toy in the history of toys has ever been as appealing to a kid as an iPhone. They are shiny, they have games and grown-ups use them for important things. More importantly, they are either off-limits or doled out in limited quantities as a reward for, say, sitting still for a minute. Load up your old iPhone with games and give it to a deserving child in your life.2. …or to your mom so she can finally see the lightAlternately, if a Luddite adult has been thinking of taking the plunge into the world of smartphones, your old iPhone may help him or her get over the hump. If you have an iPhone 4 or 4S, you might also find someone who’s still hanging on to an earlier model and give them the gift of an upgrade. You may just buy a friend for life (or at least until iPhone 6 comes out).3. Use it as a teeny-tiny iPadYou’ll be able to watch videos, send email and search Wikipedia for random facts to end cocktail-party disagreements with your decommissioned iPhone – as long as you have a Wi-Fi connection. There’s even a camera, which means you can avoid being that guy (or gal) at the concert who’s turning heads for taking photos with an iPad.4. Donate to charitySeveral charities accept old phones for donation, though it’s worth remembering that these groups likely won’t physically give your old phones to people in need. Rather, they work with phone recyclers and sell your donated phones to them.A nonprofit group called Cell Phones for Soldiers will take your “gently used” phone and sell it to recycling company ReCellular. It will then use the proceeds to buy calling cards for soldiers.The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence works with another recycling group in a similar manner. About 60 percent of the phones it collects are refurbished and resold. The money goes toward supporting the coalition. The remaining 40 percent of the phones are recycled, according to the group’s website. It pays for shipping if you are mailing three or more phones.There are a few more suggestions from New York’s Department of Environmental Conservation at: http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/8818.html .5. Alarm ClockDo you still use that old radio alarm you bought for your college dorm room in the 20th century? Join the 21st century by turning your old iPhone into an alarm clock. Hide it in a different spot in your bed each night for an added challenge.6. Sell, sell, sell!Join the eBay hordes and sell your phone for a few hundred bucks if you can. There will likely be a flood of the gadgets soon after people start getting their new phones, so it might make sense to wait a little.A company called Gazelle, meanwhile, will make an offer for your old phone based on its condition, your phone carrier and other information. A 32 gigabyte iPhone 4S on Verizon Wireless, for example, was recently going for $237 if it’s in good condition and $90 if it’s broken.Glyde.com also offers to help you resell your old phone. A recent check showed the above 4S getting roughly $325 to $350 after fees are deducted – provided there is a buyer. A “speed sale” that guarantees to sell it in seven days will get the seller slightly less money.7. Trade in at GameStopThe video game retailer offers cash or store credit for old iPhones (along with iPods and iPads). The service is only available in stores and not online. A 32 gigabyte iPhone 4S on Verizon will get you up to $335 in store credit or up to $268 in cash.8. Stream musicStick that baby in a speaker dock, spring for a Pandora subscription ($36 per year) or Spotify ($10 per month) and bam, you have a stereo.Or try SoundCloud. Although it’s meant to let you create and share music with people, it’s also a good place to listen to DJs you like or discover new ones. TuneIn, meanwhile, will let you listen to online radio stations playing music, sports, news or talk shows.9. Keep as a backup in case you lose your fancy new one.Nearly one-third of cellphone owners have had their gadgets lost or stolen, according to a recent survey from Pew Internet & Pew Internet & American Life Project.10. Use as a cameraAt its core, a decommissioned iPhone is a hard drive with a camera. Snap photos with it. No Canon needed. You can also use the iPhone to move photos and other files from one computer to another.11. Recycle with AppleApple Inc.’s own recycling program will give you an Apple gift card if it is determined to have a “monetary value.” A 32 gigabyte iPhone 4S with some light scratches but in good working condition was recently estimated at $280. That’s higher than Gazelle, but you’ll have to spend the money at Apple. The company also accepts broken phones for recycling but you won’t get any money for them.advertisementadvertisementadvertisementlast_img read more

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Got 5 Minutes? Use It to Find a New Prospect on Social Media

first_img Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack Do you remember the children’s book Where’s Waldo? C’mon, you know — the one where each page is filled with a busy scene full of people but you’re always looking for the same, brown-haired, red-striped-sweater guy? Well, social prospecting is a lot like Where’s Waldo?. No, seriously.Let me explain.It’s 2013, and now, more than ever, the pressure on businesses to determine the exact value of social media marketing is high. Depending on who’s asking, engagement can be subjective. Without the right tools, measurement can be murky.Download 37 Tips for Social Selling on LinkedInEven so, from the top down, everyone wants to know what the ROI of social media is — and more specifically, how many prospects and eventual customers your social media team generates with the time they spend engaging on various channels. Finding Leads Quickly Can Be DoneAs a social media manager, it’s your job to figure out how to find who those prospects are and get them to your sales team — and fast. You know they’re out there, but it’s not always easy to find them.Social media can be quite noisy, and sometimes, prospective customers can be buried in a sea of look-alikes. But never fear: With a little effort, the right keywords, and some strategizing, they’ll pop up faster than Waldo at the beach.Here are some tips for finding prospects on your favorite social media sites quickly, and some insight as to how I search for leads on each site listed below.TwitterTwitter is a certified gold mine for prospecting, ready for you to shake your pan and let the leads fall out, as noted by Gary Vaynerchuk in his recent LinkedIn article, “13 Tweets a Real Estate Agent Should Have Answered, Not Me.”Vaynerchuk indicated how easy it is to use Twitter’s search function to attach industry-specific keywords to Twitter users who may be interested in what you’re offering.As he notes, it doesn’t matter what you do for business or what industry you are in — anyone can use the search function and see quality results.You can even take your Twitter-mining one step further with HubSpot’s Social Inbox. As Vaynerchuk mentioned, social media prospecting is about creating context with people so that your social interactions might eventually lead to a sale.Social Inbox helps you track who is who in your Twitter list and searches by showing your contacts database of leads, opportunities, and customers, and merging it with your social media activity. Utilizing this tool means moving the most enticing prospects on Twitter bubble right up to the top.How I Locate Leads on Twitter1) In terms of finding the right leads for HubSpot, the first thing I do is write down my top 3 or 4 keywords I care about.2) Then, I head on over to Twitter search and plug those keywords in, a few different times in a few different variations, to see who is talking about our keywords and, based on their profile, if they are potentially a good fit as a prospect.3) If they are an ideal lead, I can strike up a conversation with them and either offer content they may be interested in or myself as a resource for any information on those keywords.(HubSpot customers: For this task, Social Inbox can save you loads of time and give you the information you’re looking for immediately.)  FacebookEven though Facebook may seem pretty consumer-focused on the surface, HubSpot found that 52% of all marketers sourced a lead from Facebook in 2013. This is great, but it also tells me there are marketers out there who aren’t part of the 52% — and should be.For marketers unsure of how to engage businesses via Facebook, just know it can be easy to identify the right prospects — thanks to Facebook’s new(ish) search functionality, Graph Search.If you’re not familiar with Graph Search, here’s a quick overview of how it works. What’s unique about Graph Search is that gives you search results based on very specific long-tail search queries. A good example: “Marketers in Boston looking for inbound marketing software.”See where I’m going with this? Because Graph Search pulls information from Facebook users’ profiles, it’s a premier way to discover prospects who don’t already live in your news feed.How I Locate Leads on Facebook1) I can update the keywords used on Twitter search earlier to become long-tail search queries, like “marketers looking for inbound marketing software” or “marketers looking for marketing analytics software” and type them into Graph Search on Facebook.2) Using my first query, I actually find about 10 Pages that are relevant, 2 people in my network talking about my search terms, and other possibly useful information from the site’s other features: Events, Apps, Places, and Groups.3) Now, I have countless ways I can follow up on this search: I can message a person, Like a Page to keep tabs on it, and much more.PinterestThis year, 9% of marketers found a customer from Pinterest, according to our annual inbound marketing digest. Don’t let that small percentage fool you, though.In its Digital Marketer Benchmark and Trend Report, Experian said Pinterest is now the 3rd-most popular social networking site behind Facebook and Twitter. One feature that Pinterest has in common with Twitter (and Facebook now, too) that can help you find and sort prospects is hashtags.When Twitter took off, hashtags also bloomed as a thread to connect the millions of posts from around the world into groups and categories. Today, hashtags on visual Pins are like clues into the mind of the Pinterest user due to the visual nature the post.For regular users, hashtags are a way to connect with other Pinterest users on their favorite topics. For you, they make it easy to pull out pins that users have deemed related to the keywords you use in your marketing.How I Locate Leads on Pinterest1) For Pinterest, I went back to my keywords that I used for Twitter, added a hashtag, and used Pinterest’s search functionality to see what I could find (Note: Don’t forget you have to log in!).2) The hashtag “#inboundmarketing” gave me countless search results, so after a quick glance, I paired it with “#analytics” and “#strategy” (two other hashtags that popped out a lot).3) Once this pairing is done, I can drill down on about 30 Pins that could very well lead me to the prospects I’m looking for.LinkedInBased on our State of Inbound Marketing report, we know that 43% of marketers generated a customer from LinkedIn in 2013. But being the social-media savvy marketer that you are, you know that LinkedIn is the most business-friendly social media channel and that its users are a bit more wary about strangers connecting with them than meets the eye — that is, unless, you’ve got the secret ingredient for finding leads and prospects on LinkedIn: Groups.Did you know that 53% of LinkedIn users join 10 or more groups? It’s a top-10 favorite feature of LinkedIn users. It’s also the best place to insert yourself into relevant conversations and provide useful advice, tips, and content to get you noticed and attract potential prospects to you and your business.What’s even better is that searching for these Groups is beyond simple.How I Locate Leads on LinkedIn1) Knowing I had my keywords set, I immediately signed into LinkedIn and to the left of my top search bar, I selected “Groups” from the drop-down icon menu, which will search all LinkedIn Groups. “Inbound marketing” alone gave me almost 300 groups.2) Now, I can whittle down my results as I please. I can look in Groups that have my Connections in them or are members-only, or even sort Groups by Language. Since LinkedIn is where business professionals go to network, I know there are some prospects in these Groups waiting to be found.Like I said before, social prospecting is a lot like Where’s Waldo?. Your prospects (in other words, Waldo) are out there, in the noisy, busy world that is social media. But don’t be afraid to roll up your sleeves and dig through the noise with the tips above.Do you have any other tips for social media managers who want to jump into social prospecting? Let us know in the comments!Image credit: Jason Howie  Topics: Originally published Sep 24, 2013 3:30:00 PM, updated August 26 2017 SEO and Social Medialast_img read more

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Hidden Budget Costs, LinkedIn Cheat Sheets & More in HubSpot Content This Week

first_img Originally published Apr 6, 2014 8:00:00 AM, updated February 01 2017 Topics: LinkedIn Marketing This week marks the first week of April; a week full of distractions from April Fools’ Day and the first signs of sunlight after many long winter months.While we of course found little ways to enjoy the sunlight and the April Fools’ Day pranks, we also got down to business — blogging business, at least. This week’s content is practical, and focuses on things that you can do to be more efficient in your tasks and more effective at driving results.  Want to Squeeze More Conversions Out of Your Landing Pages? Read ThisSo, it’s a new month. Your boss likely wants you to get even more leads this month than last month. This blog post will arm you with the information, data, and examples you need to optimize your landing pages for lead generation.How to Tweet Around the Clock Without Being on Twitter 24/7Those who tweet more often tend to have more followers. This means that if you’re serious about growing your Twitter presence, it’s imperative that you find a way to tweet multiple times a day. In this blog post you will learn how to tweet multiple days every day without dedicating all of your time to Twitter.5 Things Many Marketers Forget When Running A/B TestsA/B testing is an extremely important practice in today’s data-driven marketing world. That said, with A/B testing it’s very easy to make a minor mistake and totally screw up your results. This blog post identifies five A/B testing mistakes that marketers should avoid.The Hidden Costs of Creative Work (and How to Budget for Them)No matter how much time you devote to budgeting your marketing spend, there always seems to be little hidden costs of creative work that you didn’t anticipate. In this blog post, you’ll find a list of expenses that are often overlooked so you can incorporate them into your budgeting plans.The Ultimate Cheat Sheet for Mastering LinkedInLinkedIn is the most popular social networks for professionals as well as one of the top social networking sites overall. Despite being a powerful platform, LinkedIn often gets underutilized by marketers. In this blog post, learn how to use LinkedIn to its fullest potential. 4 Important Factors That Will Affect the Cost of a Website RedesignYou’re website is likely one of your most important marketing assets. As a result, you need to make sure that it’s up-to-date and optimized to its fullest potential without taking up too much of your budget. This blog post breaks down some of the most common factors that influence the price of a website redesign. Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlacklast_img read more

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Data Proving Your Work BFF Is the Best [Infographic]

first_img98Save Work Relationship Statistics46% believe friendships with coworkers make them happier. (Tweet This Stat)51% stay in touch with former colleagues. (Tweet This Stat)For 18-24 year-olds, friendships in the workplace make them feel: happy (57%), motivated (50%), productive (39%). (Tweet This Stat)33% of millennials vs. 5% of baby boomers think socializing with colleagues helps them move up the career ladder. (Tweet This Stat)18% of professionals say that friendships with colleagues make them more competitive in their careers. (Tweet This Stat) Got your own work BFF? Send this to them to see if they agree with the stats! Topics: Originally published Jul 11, 2014 12:00:00 PM, updated February 01 2017 Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlackcenter_img We’ve all heard the saying that “it’s not what you know, but who you know.”While “who you know” can help you get your foot in the door or your resume at the top of the pile during the job search, it’s also crucial to being happy once you get the job. According to LinkedIn’s Relationships @Work Study, having strong personal relationships with our coworkers is essential for a happy, productive, and fulfilling professional life.LinkedIn created the following infographic to highlight some of the major findings from their study. Take a look at the infographic to learn more about how workplace relationships impact our professional lives. (And don’t forget to share it with your workplace BFFs.)98Save Office Politicslast_img read more

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6 Cool Company Blogs Everyone Will Enjoy Reading

first_img Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack Originally published Apr 21, 2015 12:00:00 PM, updated February 01 2017 Topics: Blog Examples When I need inspiration for content that delights, email campaigns that actually work, and social media interactions that are genuinely fun … I turn to one source: an online clothing store called ModCloth. My closet is proof that their marketing works. (Perhaps a little too well.) And watching them grow has been a master class in what a customer-driven company should look like.Ask any inbound marketer, and most will name a company whose marketing inspires them like ModCloth inspires me. One they turn to when they need to re-ignite their fires, so to speak.For this post, that’s exactly what I did, with a particular focus on blogs. I asked other inbound marketers to name companies they think are rocking their blogs the way we’d all like to. I left out the obvious suspects — we all know Moz, KISSmetrics, and other, similar are amazing at the whole inbound thing. But if I’ve left out your favorite company, please share it in the comments or on our thread on Inbound.org.6 Cool Company Blogs1) Bark & Co.With blog traffic that has grown from 200k unique visitors to 9 million in a year, BarkPost — a blog from Bark & Co., the company that brought us BarkBox — is doing a lot of things right with inbound. Their content engages audiences by tapping into a puppy-loving niche with lighthearted, silly, dog-crazy content. Even their newsletter subscription form is keyed in to their unique brand voice:“Looking back, a huge part of our success is that we knew we couldn’t get the same reach with boring stuff like ‘how to trim your dog’s toenails,'” says Stacie Grissom, BarkPost’s editor-in-chief. “Or going a little bit too intense on animal welfare like those Sarah McLachlan commercials — we didn’t want to do that. By looking at everybody else and finding a different niche, that’s how we were able to get an audience.”Their editorial team focuses on fun and educational content to build a loyal audience, rather than plugging their products in every post. “When we do decide to promote something, we want to make sure we have an audience that likes listening to us normally before we go and recommend a product.”Yap! I mean, Yes!2) GrooveHQThough this help desk software company is relatively new, GrooveHQ is proving their growth strategies on their blog. For one, each post garnering around a thousand shares. Even their thank-you page for subscribing to their blog is inspired:Groove only publishes one post a week, but each one is high-value, thoughtful, interesting, informative and fun. They’re crushing it.3) HelpScoutHelpScout is a customer service company that has zero salespeople — meaning they rely entirely on inbound marketing efforts to gain clients.On their website, they encourage clients to acquire customers “the new way.” What do they mean by that? “Acquiring new customers means understanding what makes your customers tick and investing heavily in inbound marketing strategies such as content, building an email newsletter and search engine optimization (SEO),” reads their page on customer acquisition strategies for entrepreneurs.This opening line to one of their blog posts stuck out to me: “Marketing is not something you do to people; it’s something you do for people.” If that doesn’t embody inbound marketing to a tee, I don’t know what does.4) LaserfischeNot every company is going to have a glamorous product or service, but that doesn’t mean inbound doesn’t work. Laserfiche is an ECM software company that focuses on government, financial services, and education markets — and it’s gone from garnering zero leads from their website to having online leads account for 60% of closes.According to their inbound marketing manager Simon Poulton, when the company started three years ago, “we had almost no blog to speak of, a slow trickle of leads and a culture of blackhat SEO combined with list buying.” Nowadays, their most popular blog post gets about 15,000 organic hits per month. A secret of theirs? Mining their frequently asked questions and writing entire blog posts about them. “We have found success with explainer posts about the most common questions we here,” wrote Poulton. “An excellent source for these questions are all of the new folks we on board. Before they get a chance to learn too much about the company the industry, we find out what confuses them the most and the easiest way to explain these concepts!”When they run out, they start a conversation in their LinkedIn groups. These are content marketing best practices any business can — and should — follow.5) PayoneerPaypal’s competition is turning up the heat with their visually stunning blog. In fact, there’s no comparing the two blogs, even if the services themselves are, well, comparable.Payoneer’s content includes genuinely helpful subjects like “Spring Cleaning for your Freelance Business,” “How to Determine the Quality of an Affiliate Program,” and “Hot Products to Sell in your Store This Spring.” They’re all about the entrepreneur, whereas Paypal’s blog is all about Paypal (I love Paypal, don’t get me wrong, but it’s not that interesting!).6) Inbound MantraThe inbound marketing company and HubSpot partner Inbound Mantra has strong blog posts, but that’s not the main reason it’s in here. Where it really shines is in the comment sections of those blog posts. Scroll down to the bottom of some of their posts and you’ll find high-level engagement between commenter’s and the author.The result? Discussions that intelligently argue and discuss some of the most important issues in inbound marketing today. Check out this post on selfless inbound marketing, and then read the discussion in the comments that examines whether “selfless” is really the best route. Compelling stuff.Which companies do you think are rocking their inbound marketing efforts, particularly their blogs? Share with us in the comment sections!last_img read more

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How to Stay on Top of Industry News & Trends: 35 Simple IFTTT Hacks to Try

first_imgAs marketers, we all face the same challenge: how do we stay on top of the news and trends that matter to our industry?Our inboxes are overflowing. Our Twitter feeds never stop scrolling. Our bookmarks folder is stuffed to capacity. And yet, more than ever, our clients and coworkers depend on us to bring order to the chaos.The more informed we are, the more invaluable and influential we become — always ready with the statistic that makes the deck, the perfect quote from an industry insider, or a genius idea for a new partnership.The good news? You don’t have to possess some kind of superpower to stay on top of it all. A well-organized system can help you rise to the challenge, and it’s a system anyone can implement with a little help from IFTTT: a handy tool that empowers you to make connections between services and devices you already use (and can help you discover new ones).These services are called Channels (think: Facebook, Evernote, Gmail, etc.) and users can connect them with simple and powerful “if this, then that” statements called Recipes. Recipes can save you time, automate your life, and, yes, keep you informed and up-to-date on everything you need to know.To help you get started, we pulled together 35 Recipes organized along five themes. Pick and choose the ones that matter most to you to create a custom system that’ll keep you informed and influential, automatically.How to Stay on Top of Industry News & Trends: 35 Simple IFTTT Hacks to TryCatch up on news in one place, at a time that’s convenient for you with these Recipes …Unfortunately, the number of browser tabs you have open doesn’t correlate to how well you understand your industry. In fact, it can make it hard to actually get work done. Then, instead of finding and reading everything you saw in various places during the day, you’re stuck finishing the tasks you should have done at work.Find your focus with these Recipes: they’ll help you quickly save interesting articles and content you come across during your day, and send them all to the service of your choice. All the news you need, in one place, ready when you are.1) Take the first link from any tweets you Like and save it to your Pocket account.2) Send pages from Instapaper to your Kindle via Gmail by moving them to a specific folder.3) Create a note in Evernote whenever you save a post in Reddit.4) Save an article for later in Feedly to automatically save it in Pocket.5) Star an email in Gmail to automatically save it in an Evernote notebook.6) Add an article to your Pocket queue to automatically post the title and URL to a Slack channel.If that’s still too many steps, there are also Recipes that’ll curate a “Read later” list for you based on the topics and mediums you choose. No clicking required: just log in at the end of the day to see what’s been collected.Think of these as a way to go beyond the Google alert and stay on top of the sources and topics that matter most to your industry.7) Moves the top posts from r/worldnews to your Pocket account.Pro tip: Hit “Advanced settings” to put in whatever subreddit you’d like to monitor.8) Get a daily email update with the top posts from your favorite Reddit subreddit.9) Save the day’s most Dugg story from Digg to your Instapaper.10) Get an email whenever Digg publishes a new story featuring a specific keyword.11) Save stories from a specific section of Time to read later on Pocket.12) Get an email digest of the week’s most popular Business Day articles from The New York Times.Tap the global water cooler to stay on top of cultural trends and insights with these Recipes …You may roll your eyes when you hear about “The Dress” or “Chewbacca mom,” but the fact is that these online sensations become cultural touchpoints.Today’s viral moment is tomorrow’s brand strategy, marketing idea, sponsorship, or even just a dinner conversation with an important client. These Recipes will help you set up alerts so that breaking news and trends come straight to you as they gain momentum.13) Get an email from The New York Times whenever there is breaking technology news.Pro tip: Technology not your thing? Hit “Advanced settings” to change which section of the newspaper you want alerts from. 14) Get an email when content gets more than 1K shares an hour on social media from Time.com.15) Get an email with the most Dugg video on Digg every day.16) Get a daily email digest with the top headlines from NPR.And of course, because nothing on the internet counts until it’s a GIF, there’s a Recipe for staying on top of those, too: 17) Get a daily email with the GIFs that are trending on Giphy.Keep your team up to date with these Recipes …Chances are, you’re not the only one who could benefit from a steady stream of curated info. Connect different services to communication tools, such as Slack, to keep your coworkers and collaborators as in-the-know as you are. Setting up Recipes like these is a simple way to show your value as a knowledge worker and make yourself indispensable to your team.18) Share popular articles from The New York Times with your LinkedIn followers.19) Send live updates from Twitter to a Slack channel.20) Send an article to a Slack channel when you tag it with a specific tag in Pocket.21) Post your Feedly ‘save for later’ articles to a Slack channel.22) Post Instapaper articles to a Slack channel once they’re moved into a folder.Find influencers and keep an eye on the competition by tracking Twitter with these Recipes …Half the battle is finding the right sources. With so much noise out there, how do you keep track of who’s talking about your industry in a meaningful way? Especially when so much of the chatter happens in real time, on social media. These Recipes can help you create groups you can easily monitor and siphon off relevant searches into other services where you can organize and interpret them at your leisure.23) Add users to a Twitter list when they use a specific hashtag.24) Add the user to a Twitter list when you Like a tweet.25) Add a tweet to a Google spreadsheet when it contains a specific hashtag.26) Get an email whenever a specific user tweets.Pro tip: You can email up to five email accounts with a Recipe like this. 27) Create a search on Twitter and get a daily email with the results.Pro tip: Hit “advanced settings” to change the search term. 28) Add users to a Twitter list when they tweet in a specific area.Share your informed POV with your social networks with these Recipes …Now that you’re on top of everything, you can start to build a reputation as an informed thought leader. Curate a steady stream of articles and insights that you’ve given the stamp of approval across your social media. It’ll help you build your online influence.29) Automatically tweet your Diggs.30) Automatically tweet articles when you tag them with a specific tag in Feedly.31) Post your Pocket favorites to Facebook.32) Automatically share articles you tag in Pocket with a specific tag with your LinkedIn followers.33) Automatically share articles with your LinkedIn network when you give them a specific tag in Feedly.34) Add a specific hashtag to a tweet to automatically post it as a LinkedIn status update.(This is a great solution if you don’t want everything you tweet added to your LinkedIn profile.)35) Automatically share an Inoreader article on your LinkedIn by broadcasting it.Interested in exploring more Recipes? IFTTT’s collection for marketers is the perfect next step. Learn how to seamlessly cross-post, organize files, manage tasks and campaigns, and much more.What are your best tips and tricks for staying on top of industry trends? Share them in the comments. Social Media Trends Topics: Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack Originally published Jun 29, 2016 6:00:00 AM, updated February 01 2017last_img read more

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Typography Tutorial for Beginners: Everything You Need to Learn Typography Basics

first_imgLike many of you, I’m a trained marketer and more of a “do-it-yourself” designer.Sure, I read through The Marketer’s Crash Course in Visual Content Creation and learned some sweet PowerPoint and Photoshop tricks that have helped me a lot with my content marketing job. But I really wanted to take my design skills to the next level.So I asked all my designer friends what my next step should be — and every single one said to take a course on typography.Download our free do-it-yourself design guide here for more tips about using typography in your content/designs. Why typography? Turns out that while the importance of typography is often overlooked, it plays a critical role in strengthening your brand, creating interest in your product, and highlighting your central message. Knowing that, I decided to sign up for a typography course at the Massachusetts College of Art and Design. Couldn’t hurt to learn how to identify a good font from a bad one, right?I learned a lot more than that. I realized that paying attention to even the littlest details of type can make all the difference in the world when you’re laying out an email, ebook, or image for social media.This is why I wanted to write this post: to share the most important learnings and resources with my fellow marketers. So, what do you say? Are you ready to take your DIY design skills to the next level? Let’s get started.Click on a section header below to jump to that section:What Is Typography?Why Is Typography Important?Typography Definitions & TermsType ClassificationsType FamiliesTypography Fonts: Resources & Examples Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack Topics: Image Credit: DesignspirationTo understand where the importance of arrangement comes in, I like to think back to Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press. At one point in time, people practiced typography using printed materials — meaning they were literally taking letters and characters and arranging them in physical space.Today, thanks to computers, open source fonts, and scalable computer typography, it’s a lot easier to arrange letters and characters. But that physical piece remains important, even in the digital sphere.Why Is Typography Important? Typography is absolutely everywhere. Just look at your phone, a billboard, your coffee cup, or even the different styles used in this blog post. Every font, letter, and character arrangement plays a part in determining how a message is conveyed. Sure, it might seem trivial at times, but even the smallest of type adjustments can impact the look and feel of your work. For example, back in June, Facebook tested a new font on its users called Geneva. While the new font was only slightly thinner and lighter than the original, Helvetica, it made a noticeable difference to some. “The overall effect is a lighter, more modern looking block of text,” explained Chris Mills for BGR.Image Credit: MashableSame goes for when Apple changed its default font from the dramatically thin Helvetica Neue to one they developed in-house called San Francisco.”The differences between Helvetica and San Francisco are subtle, even to the trained eye, but they’re there,” wrote Liz Stinson for WIRED. “While still an austere sans serif, San Francisco is bolder and friendlier than Helvetica Neue. Based on the German typeface DIN, San Francisco gives characters more breathing room, which will make it easier to read on relatively tiny mobile screens. Tall and skinny, San Francisco is space-efficient, like Google’s custom typeface Roboto, which you could consider a close cousin to Apple’s font.”The takeaway here? The little details do matter. In fact, one of the only college courses Steve Jobs took was on calligraphy and typography, which he believed played a critical role in the success of Apple. As he once said in a Stanford University commencement speech, “If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts.” Can you imagine a world where Apple products didn’t have a focus on beautiful design? I certainly can’t.Once you realize how much thought goes into carefully selecting a typeface, it becomes much easier to recognize the differences between typefaces and understand why they might’ve been chosen in the first place. Take a look at some of the examples below to get a better sense of what I mean … Image Credit: AwwwardsImage Credit: AwwwardsImage Credit: AwwwardsImage Credit: AwwwardsReady to move on to some typography terminology? Let’s go.Typography Definitions & TermsTypefaces vs. FontsIf you thought these two words were interchangeable, you’re not alone. But they actually mean two different things.Typographer, Nick Sherman, once used a great analogy to explain the differences between the terms “typeface” and “font.” He suggested comparing these typography terms to the musical terms “song” and “mp3.” When you’re explaining how much you enjoy a particular tune, you say, “I love this song!” You wouldn’t say, “I love this mp3!” The song is the work of art, whereas an mp3 file is just the delivery mechanism.The same rules apply in typography. You should use the word “typeface” when describing the creative work (i.e., what you see). This is a more abstract design term used when referring to the way a specific collection looks or feels. For example, Helvetica is a typeface.If you’re describing the physical embodiment of the collection of letters and characters, you should use the term “font.” It refers to what you use — whether that’s a file on your computer or a case full of metal letters. This is the tangible representation of that collection of letters and characters. For example, Helvetica Bold and Helvetica Light Oblique are fonts.Here’s how you could use these two terms in a sentence: “I’ll change the font size to 12pt so it fits in the box.” The Anatomy of a TypefaceIt’s way easier to communicate with designers when you actually speak their language, which is why it’s important to understand the anatomy of a typeface. Each part of a letter has its own special term, similar to bones in a human body. Below, you’ll see three diagrams that explain the makeup of individual letters, how these elements interact with each other, and how they sit on a line.For example, let’s take with the word “Faulty” as it’s shown in the picture below.Here’s how each of the terms here are defined:Baseline: The line where the letters sit.Cap height: The distance from the baseline to the top of the capital letter.X-height: Located in between the baseline and the cap height, it’s the height of the body of the lowercase letter. (In this case, it’s the letters ‘a,’ ‘u,’ and ‘y.’)Bowl: The curved part of the character that encloses the circular or curved parts of some letters, like ‘d,’ ‘b,’ ‘o,’ ‘D,’ and ‘B.’ (In this case, it’s that round shape sticking off the letter ‘a.’)Serif: The slight projection finishing off a stroke of a letter in certain typefaces. (In this case, it’s that little foot sticking off the letter ‘l.’)Descender: The longest point on a letter that falls beyond the baseline.Now, let’s look at the word “flash”: Here’s how these terms are defined:Ligature: The stroke that joins adjacent letters. (In this case, you’ll notice the ‘f’ and the ‘l’ smush together to form one character.)Stem: The base of a letter, similar to the stem of a flower.Spine: The curvy body of the letter ‘s’ — and only the letter ‘s.’ It gets its own term because the spine can be almost vertical or mostly horizontal, depending on the typeface.Ascender: The portion of a letter that extends above the mean line of a font — i.e., is taller than the font’s x-height. (In this case, you’ll also notice the letter ‘h’ is actually taller than the x-height.)Still with me? Just a few more here. Let’s take a look at the word “Beef”:  Here’s how these terms are defined:Cross bar: The bar that goes across the inside of the letter and connects one side to another. (In this case, it’s the bar inside the capital letter ‘B.’)Counter: The empty space in the middle of letters such as ‘B’, ‘O’, or ‘A.’Finial: The tapered end of letters such as ‘e’ or ‘c.’Terminal: A type of curve that you see at the top of the letter ‘f’ or the end of the letter ‘j.’Good work. Now that you know the anatomy of letterforms, let’s get into the terms related to spacing: kerning, tracking, leading, and hierarchy.KerningKerning is the modification of the space between two letters. For example, check out the image below: Here, I used Franklin Gothic Medium to showcase the natural space you see between two letter T’s. It looks a little too snug, right? By customizing the spacing between just these two letters, you’ll be able to increase readability.TrackingSimilar to kerning, tracking deals with a modification to letter spacing. However, instead of adjusting the spacing between just two letters, tracking is an adjustment to the spacing between all letters an entire word. See the difference below:For this example, I chose to make an extreme adjustment to the tracking. Typically, you’d want to apply tracking in small increments to avoid causing readability issues.LeadingRemember in high school when you had to double-space your essays? Well, the terms “single-space” and “double-space” can also be called “leading,” which is the distance between the baselines. See leading in action:You can choose to increase your leading, creating more space between the baselines, or decrease your leading, which pushes your lines of text closer together. The reason high school teachers asked for essays to be double-spaced was because it’s much easier to read, and they could make corrections to the text more easily.HierarchyAs you read through this blog post, you’ll notice certain words stand out more than others. That’s what designers would call creating a hierarchy. You can use different weights (bold, regular, light), styles (italic), and sizes to create a sense of order within your text. Not only does this help create a legible flow, but it helps the reader see what the most important points are.Here’s an example of what hierarchy looks like:In most cases, you want people to read the title first. That’s why you’ll see most titles are much bigger and bolder than the body text. Call-out quotes and descriptive sentences can also stand out above the rest of the text using techniques such as bolding and italicizing.With effective hierarchy, the reader should be able to jump from one section to the next to identify the most important points.Got all these typography terms down? Cool. Let’s move on to how typography is organized with type classifications and type families. (Takes you back to biology class a little, doesn’t it?)Type ClassificationsThe two main type classifications you see are called serif and sans serif. Other classifications include slab serif, blackletter, script, modern, and decorative. Let’s start with the most common two, and then touch on just a few others to give you an idea of what they’re all about. SerifRemember when I pointed out the little foot in the word “Faulty?” Typefaces with feet like that are called serif. You can see where I highlighted these little feet below:Common serif typefaces include Times New Roman, Georgia, and Garamond. If you’re reading a novel, you might notice the body text is a serif. That’s because a serif is much easier to read in long, printed works due to the distinctiveness between letters.Sans SerifIn French, the word “sans” means “without.” So the term “sans serif” literally means “without serif.” In the image below, you’ll notice the words lack serifs, as I pointed out with the red arrows.Common sans serif typefaces include Arial, Verdana, and Futura. You’ll see a lot of sans serifs being used in blog posts and documents on the web because it feels more modern and looks great even at lower screen resolutions.BlackletterBlackletter typefaces, also referred to as Gothic, Fraktur or Old English, are known for its dramatic thick and thin strokes and its elaborate swirls on the serifs. These typefaces are based on early manuscript writing — in fact, blackletters were used in Gutenberg’s Bible, one of the first books ever printed in Europe. They were much more popular before 1500 than they are today.Image Credit: SitePointAs you can tell, blackletters are pretty hard to read, which is why they’re not typically used for body type. You’ll usually see them in headers, logos, posters, and signs — like on newspaper nameplates (New York Times’ logo, anyone?), or on the headers of certificates, diplomas, or degrees. Common blackletter fonts include Cloister Black, Deutsche Zierschrift, and Germanica.Image Credit: SitePointScriptScript typefaces are based upon the varied and often fluid strokes created by handwriting. As scalable computer typefaces, characters in these scripts can now string together with one another automatically so they convincingly mimic handwriting, rather than users having to manually pick and choose which letters go after which — which you can imagine was a painstaking process.Under the umbrella of a script typeface, there are two basic classifications: formal and casual. Formal scripts are often reminiscent of the handwritten letterforms common in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and they’re used for elegant designs like invitations and diplomas, not for body copy.Image Credit: Deciduous PressCasual scripts, or informal scripts, are just that: less formal script typefaces that look more like everyday handwritingImage Credit: Font HausThose are just a few examples of type classifications to give you an idea of how they work. But, since this is a blog post, not a typography course, let’s move on to type families.Type FamiliesThe term “type family” or “typeface family” is used to describe a range of designs that are all variations of one basic typeface.For example, you’ll see that Proxima Nova has variations such as bold, extra bold, black, regular, light, light italic, and regular italic:Sticking to a single type family will help add variation to your designs, while keeping it consistent and uniform.Designers might use various fonts within one family to create a sense of hierarchy — designing so that the most important elements, such as headlines and quotes, stand out above the rest of the text.Typography FontsBefore we wrap up here, I figured I’d leave you with a few great resources for where to find free fonts to download from the web, along with eight free ones I handpicked from these resources to get you started.Great Resources for Free Fonts”35 of the Best Free Fonts You Should Download”: A HubSpot blog post curating 35 of the best free fonts on the internet.Google Fonts: Hundreds of free, open-source fonts from Google that are already optimized for the web.Behance: A great resource for finding beautiful design work, including unique fonts that are free to download.HypeForType: Over 25,000 typography designs from top designers, many of which are available to download for free.8 Cool Fonts That Are Free to Download1) Crimson Text Here’s one that’s great for body copy. It was meant for book production, according to Google Fonts, so it’s easy to read. But at the same time, there’s a lot to it that makes it special: old-style figures, small caps, fleurons, and math characters and the like. It comes in three styles — Regular, Light, and Bold — along with the italic styles of those weights.2) Harmattan Harmattan is a typeface on Google Fonts that was actually originally intended to suit Arabic scripts, but it also looks great on Latin characters — and would love attractive in either headline or body copy.3) Torcao Torcao is a unique combination of letters that are “half square, half circle,” robust and technical while at the same time, light-hearted and inviting. It a great headline typeface, but it still quite legible in longer text. The family comes in nine weights (slender to black) and has both condensed and extender selections for a complete set of forty-eight fonts.4) King Basil This free brush font posted on Behance is great for commercial materials like social media images and flyers. It’s a Lite version of the designer’s “Full King Basil,” and it contains many swashes and connecting letters that make for a beautiful, script-like font.5) Merriweather Merriweather was designed to be a typeface that’s pleasant and easy to read on screens, making it perfect for a web asset like your homepage or blog. It’s an evolving project on Google Fonts and will be updated, but right now, you’ll find four styles — Regular, Light, Bold, and Black — along with the italic styles of those weights6) Poiret One Poiret One is a long-time favorite of mine. It’s described on Google Fonts as “a fresh, decorative, geometric grotesque with a hint of Art Deco and constructivism.” It’s sleek, simple, decorative, and great for short texts. Try it on large signs, labels, posters, T-shirts, titles, or headlines.7) True NorthA vintage-inspired headline typeface from HypeForType with sixteen different styles and a monoline script. It also includes free labels and extras like wild animals, numbers, symbols, tools, and other icons. True North comes with labels, extras and free banners. Extras include wild animals, catchwords, numbers, symbols, tools, maple leaves and trees. True North is a headline font with alternate capitals.8) BraveryHere’s a cool free font posted on Behance created by a professional font creator who was kind enough to accompany the free download with the mockups below. These mockups show folks how they can play around with the font in their own designs. It comes in capital letters and numbers only, and is great for headlines or social media images like the ones below.Of course, there’s always more you could learn when it comes to typography. When graphic designers get a degree, they usually have to go through several rounds of typography courses to become a professional.But now you know some key terms to get you started and — at the very least — you’ll be able to sound super smart when talking to your designer friends.Want more typography tips? Check out this post on the relationship between fonts and feelings.Editor’s Note: This post was originally published in June 2014 and has been updated for freshness, accuracy, and comprehensiveness.center_img Originally published Aug 2, 2016 8:00:00 AM, updated July 28 2017 What Is Typography?Before taking this course, typography — to me, at least — was more the art of scrolling through a dropdown menu until I found a font that looked like it could work. But it turns out there’s a lot more to it than that.Typography is the art and technique of arranging type, type meaning letters and characters.Notice that it’s about more than just the design of letters and characters; the arrangement of those letters and characters is just as big a part of it all. That refers to the selection of point size, line length, and spacing, both on a single line and throughout an entire page or piece of work. Font Selection “Wow. The typeface you chose really pulls this design together.”last_img read more

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